Operation Reinhard

However, from onwards, to hide the evidence of this war crime, all bodies were burned in open air pits. Schutzstaffel , Orpo Battalions , Sicherheitsdienst , Trawnikis. Treblinka, the last camp to become operational, utilised knowledge learned by the SS previously.

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Galardi borrowed some money from his parents, laid off all of the employees at the restaurant and worked alone, and eventually secured enough money to purchase the store. A couple of years later, a man wanted to recruit Galardi to start his own restaurant at a location on Pacific Coast Highway in Wilmington, next to one of Bell's taco stores. Bell encouraged him to take the man up on the offer, but to sell another kind of food. Galardi decided to sell hot dogs since "nobody else was in hot dogs.

He was initially skeptical of the name, saying, "I told my wife going home nobody in their right mind would call a company wienerschnitzel. In the late s, Galardi converted several stores in the Denver area and other Western cities into The Original Hamburger Stand restaurants. Wienerschnitzels now sell Tastee-Freez ice cream, a brand also owned by Galardi. John Galardi died of pancreatic cancer on April 13, In , the company signed a franchise agreement with International Food Concepts Inc.

The expression Wienerschnitzel is German, spelled as a one-word compound as was the standard before the spelling reform of and is still the standard in Switzerland; [4] however, the correct article to use in this case is the neuter form das , [5] not the masculine der. This is true for both the actual food das Schnitzel and the restaurant itself das Restaurant , das Lokal. In English, "wiener" short for "wienerwurst" , from Wiener Würstchen , is a colloquial name for a hot dog.

The chain changed its name to "Wienerschnitzel" sans article in , though many franchises retained the older name on their restaurants and many older customers still refer to the chain as "Der Wienerschnitzel". The restaurant paid homage to its original name in its marketing slogan, "DERlicious".

Soon after the name change, the current Wienerschnitzel "W" logo was created by noted graphic designer Saul Bass in The Delicious One sometimes referred to as TDO , Wienerschnitzel's mascot, has been featured in some of their advertising since Wienerschnitzel has not produced many The Delicious One commercials lately. The new commercials are more focused on describing their food products and are produced in live action.

Wienerschnitzel also uses the slogan "DERlicious" in their advertising, relating back to before the company dropped the "Der" from its name in In celebration of Wienerschnitzel's 50th anniversary, a new slogan was released in to continue the "Der" theme: Edit Read in another language Wienerschnitzel. Various German documents spell the name differently, some with "t" after "d" as in "Aktion Reinhardt" , others without it. Yet another spelling Einsatz Reinhart was used in the Höfle Telegram.

Heydrich was attacked by British-trained Czechoslovakian agents on 27 May and died of his injuries eight days later. Meanwhile, Fritz Reinhardt and his ministry became involved with the operation well after it had received its name, according to historians Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, thus confirming that the operation was indeed named after Reinhard Heydrich. Notably, the order preceded the Wannsee Conference by three months. Globocnik was given control over the entire programme.

All highly secretive orders he received came directly from Himmler and not from SS- Gruppenführer Richard Glücks , head of the greater Nazi concentration camp system, which was run by the SS-Totenkopfverbände and engaged in slave labour for the war effort.

The extermination program was designed by them based on prior experience from the forced euthanasia centres. The bulk of the actual labour at each "final solution" camp was performed by up to mostly Ukrainian Trawniki guards , recruited by SS- Hauptsturmführer Karl Streibel from among the Soviet prisoners of war, [23] and by up to a thousand Sonderkommando prisoners whom the Trawniki guards used to terrorise. According to the testimony of SS- Oberführer Arpad Wigand during his war crimes trial in Hamburg, only 25 percent of recruited collaborators could speak German.

By mid, two more death camps had been built on Polish lands: The killing mechanism consisted of a large internal-combustion engine pumping exhaust fumes into homicidal gas chambers through long pipes. Starting in February—March the bodies of the dead were exhumed and cremated in pits. Treblinka, the last camp to become operational, utilised knowledge learned by the SS previously.

With two powerful engines, [a] run by SS-Scharführer Erich Fuchs , [26] and the gas chambers soon rebuilt of bricks and mortar, this death factory had killed between , and 1,, people within 15 months, disposed of their bodies, and sorted their belongings for shipment to Germany.

It was set up around a manor house similar to Sonnenstein. The use of gas vans had been previously tried and tested in the mass killing of Polish prisoners at Soldau , [37] and in the extermination of Jews on the Russian Front by the Einsatzgruppen.

It was a testing ground for the establishment of faster methods of killing and incinerating people, marked by the construction of stationary facilities for the mass murder a few months later. The Reinhard death camps adapted progressively as each new site was built. The camps were situated within wooded areas well away from population centres.

All were constructed near branch lines that linked to the Ostbahn. Wooden watchtowers and barbed-wire fences camouflaged with pine branches surrounded all camps. The killing centres had no electric fences, as the size of the prisoner Sonderkommandos work units remained relatively easy to control — unlike in camps such as Dachau and Auschwitz. To assist with the arriving transports only specialised squads were kept alive, removing and disposing of bodies, and sorting property and valuables from the dead victims.

The Totenjuden forced to work inside death zones were kept in isolation from those who worked in the reception and sorting area. Periodically, those who worked in the death zones would be killed and replaced with new arrivals to remove any potential witnesses to the scale of the mass murder. An undetermined number of Roma were also killed in these death camps, many of them children. In order to achieve their purposes, all death camps used subterfuge and misdirection to conceal the truth and trick their victims into cooperating.

This element had been developed in Aktion T4, when disabled and handicapped people were taken away for "special treatment" by the SS from "Gekrat" wearing white laboratory coats, thus giving the process an air of medical authenticity. After supposedly being assessed, the unsuspecting T4 patients were transported to killing centres. The same euphemism "special treatment" Sonderbehandlung was used in the Holocaust. The SS used a variety of ruses to move thousands of new arrivals travelling in Holocaust trains to the disguised killing sites without unleashing panic.

Mass deportations were called " resettlement actions "; they were organised by special Commissioners, [49] and conducted by uniformed police battalions from Orpo and Schupo in an atmosphere of terror. For example, in August , people of the Warsaw Ghetto lined up for several days to be "deported" in order to obtain bread allocated for travel. Once alighted, the prisoners were ordered to leave their luggage behind and march directly to the "cleaning area" where they were asked to hand over their valuables for "safekeeping".

Common tricks included the presence of a railway station with awaiting "medical personnel" and signs directing people to disinfection facilities. Treblinka also had a booking office with boards naming the connections for other camps further East. The Jews most apprehensive of danger were brutally beaten in order to speed up the process.

Once in the changing area, the men and boys were separated from the women and children, and everyone was ordered to disrobe for a communal bath: They were killed by a bullet in the neck, while the rest were being forced into the gas chambers.

To drive the naked people into the execution barracks housing the gas chambers, the guards used whips, clubs, and rifle butts. Panic was instrumental in filling the gas chambers, because the need to evade blows on their naked bodies forced the victims rapidly forward.

Once packed tightly inside to minimize available air , the steel air-tight doors with portholes were closed. SS guards would determine when to reopen the gas doors based on how long it took for the screaming to stop from within usually 25 to 30 minutes. Special teams of camp inmates Sonderkommando would then remove the corpses on flatbed carts. Before the corpses were thrown into grave pits, gold teeth were removed from mouths, and orifices were searched for jewellery, currency, and other valuables.

During the early phases of Operation Reinhard , victims were simply thrown into mass graves and covered with lime. However, from onwards, to hide the evidence of this war crime, all bodies were burned in open air pits. Special Leichenkommando corpse units had to exhume bodies from the mass graves around these death camps for incineration.

Nevertheless, Reinhard still left a paper trail. The decoded Enigma message contained statistics showing a total of 1,, arrivals at the four Aktion Reinhard camps until the end of , [62] but the British code-breakers did not understand the meaning of the message, which amounted to material evidence of how many people the Germans themselves confirmed they had murdered.

In the winter of , before the Wannsee Conference but after the commencement of Operation Barbarossa , the Nazi demands for forced labor greatly intensified. Therefore, Himmler and Heydrich approved the Jewish substitution policy in Upper Silesia and in Galicia under the "destruction through labor" doctrine. For a short time these Jewish laborers were temporarily spared death, while their families and all others perished.

Hermann Höfle was one of the chief supporters and implementers of this policy. However, the problems were the food they required and the ensuing logistical challenges. Globocnik and Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger complained, and the mass transfer had stopped even before the three extermination camps were working at full throttle. Approximately million German Reichsmarks' worth of Jewish property current approximate value: Many of the individual SS members and policemen involved in the killings took cash, property, and valuables for themselves.

The higher-ranking SS men stole on an enormous scale. It was a common practice among the top echelon. Operation Reinhard ended in November Most of the staff and guards were then sent to northern Italy for further Aktion against Jews and local partisans.

Globocnik went to the San Sabba concentration camp, where he supervised the detention, torture, and killing of political prisoners. At the same time, to cover up the mass murder of more than two million people in Poland during Operation Reinhard, the Nazis implemented the secret Sonderaktion , also called Aktion or Enterdungsaktion " exhumation action".

The operation, which began in and continued until the end of , was designed to remove all traces that mass murder had been carried out. Leichenkommando "corpse units" comprising camp prisoners were created to exhume mass graves and cremate the buried bodies, using giant grills made from wood and railway tracks.

Afterwards, bone fragments were ground up in special milling machines, and all remains were then re-buried in freshly dug pits. The Aktion was overseen by squads of the Trawniki guards. After the war, some of the SS officers and guards were tried and sentenced at the Nuremberg trials for their role in Operation Reinhard and Sonderaktion ; however, many others escaped conviction, such as Ernst Lerch , Globocnik's deputy and chief of his Main Office, whose case was dropped for lack of witness testimony.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Einsatz Reinhard. Action Reinhard , During the construction of the gas chambers at Sobibor SS- Scharführer Erich Fuchs installed a horsepower, water cooled V-8 gasoline engine as the killing mechanism there, according to his own postwar testimony.

There's an ongoing debate with regard to the type of fuel at Treblinka used as the lethal agent. On 2 August , they set ablaze a petrol tank causing it to explode. No second tank containing a different type of fuel i.

All diesel motors require diesel fuel; the engine and the fuel work together as a system. An effort in the late '30s to extend the diesel engine's use to passenger cars was interrupted by World War II. Institute of National Remembrance , Warsaw: Retrieved 26 January Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 15 March Foreign Languages Publishing House. Archived from the original on — via Internet Archive. Stories, Journalism, and Essays. Retrieved 1 August Archived from the original on 22 October — via Internet Archive, 22 October Full Listing of Camps, Poland".

Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 19 February Memories From My Home. Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 6 October Experiences and Reflections on Germany — Archived from the original on The Destruction of the European Jews 3rd ed. Killing centers could be hidden, but the disappearance of major communities was noticed in Brussels and Vienna, Warsaw and Budapest.

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