Indische Aktienmärkte: Zinserhöhung trifft indische Börse vorbereitet
Culture, Structure and Beyond, Changing identities and social positions of immigrants and their children.
Erdgas Schwaben Arena Kaufbeuren
Northern latitudes have selection for lighter skin that allows UV rays to produce vitamin D from 7-dehydrocholesterol. Conversely, latitudes near the equator have selection for darker skin that can block the majority of UV radiation to protect from toxic levels of vitamin D, as well as skin cancer. An anecdote often cited to support this hypothesis is that Arctic populations whose skin is relatively darker for their latitude, such as the Inuit, have a diet that is historically rich in vitamin D.
Since these people acquire vitamin D through their diet, there is not a positive selective force to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight. This risk of mismatch increases with advances in transportation methods and increases in urban population size at high latitudes. Similar to the environmental mismatch when dark-skinned people live at high latitudes, Rickets can also occur in religious communities that require long garments with hoods and veils. In a study by Mithal et al.
These percentages should be regarded as relative vitamin D levels, and not as predicting evidence for development of rickets.
Asian immigrants living in Europe have an increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. The Middle East, despite high rates of sun-exposure, has the highest rates of rickets worldwide. Socioeconomic factors that limit a vitamin D rich diet also plays a role.
In the United States, vitamin D insufficiency varies dramatically by ethnicity. Among women, the prevalence was A systematic review published in the Cochrane Library looked at children up to three years old in Turkey and China and found there was a beneficial association between vitamin D and rickets.
In China, a combination of vitamin D, calcium and nutritional counseling was linked to a decreased risk of rickets. With this evolutionary perspective in mind, parents can supplement their nutritional intake with vitamin D enhanced beverages if they feel their child is at risk for vitamin D deficiency, . Infants with rickets often have bone fractures. This sometimes leads to child abuse allegations. This issue appears to be more common for solely nursing infants of black mothers, in winter in temperate climates, suffering poor nutrition and no vitamin D supplementation.
The most common treatment of rickets is the use of vitamin D. Treatment involves increasing dietary intake of calcium, phosphates and vitamin D. Exposure to ultraviolet B light most easily obtained when the sun is highest in the sky , cod liver oil , halibut-liver oil, and viosterol are all sources of vitamin D.
A sufficient amount of ultraviolet B light in sunlight each day and adequate supplies of calcium and phosphorus in the diet can prevent rickets. Darker-skinned people need to be exposed longer to the ultraviolet rays. The replacement of vitamin D has been proven to correct rickets using these methods of ultraviolet light therapy and medicine. Recommendations are for international units IU of vitamin D a day for infants and children.
Children who do not get adequate amounts of vitamin D are at increased risk of rickets. Vitamin D is essential for allowing the body to uptake calcium for use in proper bone calcification and maintenance. Vitamin D 3 cholecalciferol is the preferred form since it is more readily absorbed than vitamin D 2. Most dermatologists recommend vitamin D supplementation as an alternative to unprotected ultraviolet exposure due to the increased risk of skin cancer associated with sun exposure.
In developed countries, rickets is a rare disease  incidence of less than 1 in , Recently, cases of rickets have been reported among children who are not fed enough vitamin D. Greek physician Soranus of Ephesus , one of the chief representatives of the Methodic school of medicine who practiced in Alexandria and subsequently in Rome , reported deformation of the bones in infants as early as the first and second centuries AD. Rickets was not defined as a specific medical condition until , when an English physician Daniel Whistler gave the earliest known description of the disease.
In a treatise on rickets was published by Francis Glisson , a physician at Caius College, Cambridge ,  who said it had first appeared about 30 years previously in the counties of Dorset and Somerset. The role of diet in the development of rickets   was determined by Edward Mellanby between — Steenbock's irradiation technique was used for foodstuffs, but most memorably for milk. By , rickets had all but been eliminated in the United States.
The word rickets may be from the Old English word wrickken 'to twist' , although because this is conjectured, several major dictionaries simply say "origin unknown". The name rickets is plural in form but usually singular in construction.
In the broadest sense, an Indo is anyone of mixed European and Indonesian descent. Indos are associated with colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies , a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia and a predecessor to modern Indonesia after its proclamation of independence shortly after World War II. The term "Indo" is first recorded from ,  an abbreviation of the Dutch term "indo-Europeaan". Studio portrait of the family Engelenburg, Banyuwangi Indische is an abbreviation of the Dutch term Indische Nederlander.
Indische was a term that could be applied to everything connected with the Dutch East Indies. To distinguish between the two, Eurasians are called Indo and native Dutch are called Totok.
Mesties or as coloured Dutch: Additionally, a wide range of more contumacious terms, such as liplap , can be found in the literature. Eurasians in the Dutch East Indies were descendants of Europeans who travelled to Asia between the 16th and the 20th century. Portuguese explorers discovered two trade routes to Asia, sailing around the south of Africa or the Americas to create a commercial monopoly.
In the early 16th century the Portuguese established important trade posts in South East Asia, which was a diverse collection of many rival kingdoms, sultanates and tribes spread over a huge territory of peninsulas and islands.
The Spanish established a dominant presence further north in the Philippines. These historical developments were instrumental in building a foundation for large Eurasian communities in this region. While the oldest Indo families descend from Portuguese traders and explorers,  some family names of old Indo families include Simao, De Fretes, Perera, Henriques, etc.
During the s Jan Pieterszoon Coen in particular insisted that families and orphans be sent from Holland to populate the colonies. As a result, a number of single women were sent and an orphanage was established in Batavia to raise Dutch orphan girls to become East India brides. There was a large number of women from the Netherlands recorded as marrying in the years around At least half the brides of European men in Batavia came from Europe.
Many of these women were widows, already previously married in the Indies, but almost half of them were single women from the Netherlands marrying for the first time. There were still considerable numbers of women sailing eastwards to the Indies at this time. The ships' passenger lists from the 17th century also evidence this. Not until later in the 17th century did the numbers of passengers to Asia drop drastically.
Given the small population of their country, the Dutch had to fill out their recruitment for Asia by looking for overseas emigration candidates in the underprivileged regions of north-western Europe.
In , over half the Batavia garrison of consisted of foreigners Germans were the majority among them , there were also French , Scots , English , Danes , Flemings , and Walloons they were half of the VOC overall. Many settled in Batavia for long periods. The VOC and later the colonial government to a certain extent encouraged this, partly to maintain their control over the region. The non-native born totok Europeans adopted Indo culture and customs.
The Indo lifestyle e. Eurasian men were recruited by the colonial regime as go-betweens in both the civil administration and the military, where their mastery of two languages was useful. Few European women came to the Indies during the Dutch East India Company period to accompany the administrators and soldiers who came from the Netherlands.
In Batavia's population consisted of 2, Europeans, mainly Dutch merchants 2. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, there were new arrivals of Europeans in Malacca who made it their new home and became part of the Malacca Dutch community. In , over half of the 18, Europeans in Java were Eurasians. Dahler joined the indigenous Indonesian independence movement. First the POWs , then all male adults and finally all females with their children and adolescents were interned.
Boys of 10 years old and older were separated from their mothers and put into a boys camp usually together with old men. While the women were interned with children in womens camps, Vrouwenkampen  all working age men were interned as forced unpaid labor . The Japanese failed in their attempts to win over the Indo community, and Indos were made subject to the same forceful measures. These mixed people are called Indo-Europeans… They have formed the backbone of officialdom.
In general they feel the same loyalty to the Netherlands as do the white Dutch. They have full rights as Dutch citizens and they are Christians and follow Dutch customs.
This group has suffered more than any other during the Japanese occupation. Leaders of the Indonesian independence movement cooperated with the Japanese to realise an independent nation. Two days after Japan's surrender in August , the independence leaders declared an independent Republic of Indonesia. The majority of Indo males were either captive or in hiding and remained oblivious to these developments. Native blood was the only thing that could free Indos from being put into concentration camps.
On 24 November , Sutomo leaked propaganda to specifically kill the Dutch, Indo, Ambonese and unarmed civilians. In , , Eurasians who had been socialized into many Dutch customs were repatriated. Most of them moved to the Netherlands. Many had never been there before. The migration pattern of the so-called Repatriation progressed in five distinct waves over a period of 20 years.
Many Indos who left for the Netherlands often continued the journey of their diaspora to warmer places, such as California and Florida in the United States.
During the s and s an estimated 60, Indos arrived in the US, where they have integrated into mainstream American society. These Indos were sometimes also referred to as Indo-Europeans and Amerindos. Indos who emigrated to the USA following Indonesian independence assimilated into their new country, marrying people outside the community; most never returned to Indonesia.
An accurate count of Indo immigrants is not available, as the US Census classified people according to their self-determined ethnic affiliation. The Indos may have been included in overlapping categories of "country of origin", "other Asians," "total foreign", "mixed parentage", "total foreign-born" and "foreign mother tongue".
However the Indos who settled via the legislative refugee measures number at least 25, The original post-war refugee legislation of , already adhering to a strict 'affidavit of support' policy, was still maintaining a colour bar making it difficult for Indos to emigrate to the USA.
By , US consulates in the Netherlands registered 33, requests and had waiting times of 3 to 5 years. The yearly quota for Indonesia was limited to visas, even though Dutch foreign affairs attempted to profile Indos as refugees from the alleged pro-communist Sukarno administration. In , only visas were actually granted. Partly influenced by the anti-western rhetoric and policies of the Sukarno administration, anti-communist US Representative Francis E.
Walter pleaded for a second term of the Refugee Relief Act in and an additional slot of 15, visas in In the US Pastore-Walter Act "Act for the relief of certain distressed aliens" was passed allowing for a one off acceptance of 10, Dutchmen from Indonesia excluding the regular annual quota of 3, visas. Still in senators Pastore and Walter managed to get a second 2-year term for their act which was used by a great number of Indo ' Spijtoptanten ' Repentis.
The Indos who immigrated and their descendants can be found in all fifty US states, with a majority in southern California. Indos settled initially with their sponsors or in locations offered them by the sponsor. Indos also had a wide variety of occupations and in this respect were not limited to certain geographic areas. There were no forces in the host society limiting the choice of location; there was a full choice as to where to settle.
Unlike in the Netherlands, US Indos do not increase numerically because of their relative small numbers and their geographical dispersion. Also the disappearance of a proverbial "old country" able to supply a continual influx of new immigrants stimulates the rapid assimilation of Indos into the US.
Although several Indo clubs  have existed throughout the second half of the 20th century, the community's elders are passing away steadily. Some experts expect that within the lifespan of the second and third generation descendants, the community will be assimilated and disappear completely into American multicultural society. Triggered by the loss of family and community elders, US Indos are starting to rapidly reclaim their cultural heritage as well as sense of community.
In the early s, Australian immigration officials based in the Netherlands screened potential Indo migrants on skin colour and western orientation. Refusals were never explained. Notes to the applicants contained this standard sentence in English: In the early s, only vocationally skilled migrants were accepted to Australia.
Eventually the key question posed by Australian officials was: In the s, in an attempt to make the policy more objective, a procedure was implemented that gave the applicant the opportunity to ask for a second opinion by a different official. Both decisions were then weighed by a higher official. Moreover, Anti-Asian migration policies started to change and in Australian immigration officials were even dispatched to Asia.
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