Present Status and Promotion Measures for the introduction of Renewable Energy in Japan

Der Bund fördert die Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien unter anderem mit der kostenorientierten Einspeisevergütung (KEV). Die Bearbeitung der Gesuche neuer Anlagen werden extern, von der Firma Pronovo, bearbeitet.

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Ausführliche Informationen über die Agenda und ihre Umsetzung finden Sie hier und auf der Website 17ziele. Damit Sie sich einen guten und schnellen Überblick über die vielfältigen Herausforderungen und Arbeitsfelder unserer Entwicklungszusammenarbeit verschaffen können, haben wir für Sie ein Stichwortregister zusammengestellt. Sie erreichen es über den Navigationspunkt "Themen", oben in der grauen Navigationsleiste.

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Falls Sie sich für ein konkretes Thema interessieren, können Sie es auch über die integrierte Themensuche finden — geben Sie dazu einfach das entsprechende Stichwort in das Suchfeld ein. Externes Video aufrufen "Das ist eine Problematik, die kein Nationalstaat alleine lösen kann". Warum Deutschland sich engagiert. Gerd Müller anlässlich der Verabschiedung des Haushaltes für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung.

Externes Video aufrufen "Das ist ein starkes Zeichen". Standbild aus dem Videointerview von FAZ. Denn heute habe man die Technologie und das Wissen, um die Ernährungsprobleme in Afrika und in anderen Regionen der Welt zu lösen.

Externes Video aufrufen "Hunger ist Mord". Externes Video aufrufen Arbeitsperspektiven in Tunesien schaffen. Externes Video aufrufen "Die Probleme sind lösbar — aber wir müssen uns mehr anstrengen. Er will sich auf Partnerländer konzentrieren, die Bereitschaft zu Reformen erkennen lassen. Externes Video aufrufen "Die Afrikaner müssen selber mehr leisten". Mit dem Marshallplan mit Afrika unterstützt Deutschland Reformen. Support of biomass was also increased, with special bonuses for a number of different biomass types.

Biomass must also comply with specified ecological requirements to be eligible, these requirements being contained in a separate 'sustainability ordinance' Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung or BioSt-NachV. The hydroelectricity tariffs were raised considerably and particularly for micro and small power plants.

The tariffs for geothermal energy were raised considerably too, as was the cogeneration bonus. An additional 'early starter bonus' was introduced for geothermal projects put into operation before A 'green power privilege' Grünstromprivileg was introduced, which exempted electricity suppliers with a minimum quota of renewables from the EEG surcharge under certain circumstances. New measures allowed grid operators to temporarily limit wind turbine output in times of network congestion, with compensation payable to the plant owner for lost remuneration.

The government launched its national Energy Concept in September It was becoming clear that action on the photovoltaic remuneration was necessary. The growth in photovoltaics had exceeded all expectations. As a result, the support costs had skyrocketed. The feed-in rate itself was dependent on the system size and the proportion of demand that was consumed on-site.

Free-standing systems were excluded from using agricultural land. The PV Interim Act introduced the possibility of further downward adjustments for the photovoltaic tariffs during the year. It also modified the flexible cap to better control the growth of photovoltaics. In application of the EEG version in force at the time, [29] no further adjustment to the feed-in tariffs occurred in The new EEG sought to advance the dynamic expansion of renewable electricity generation, control the rising costs associated with the scheme, and enhance market and grid integration, while adhering to the principles of a feed-in system.

The revised system includes a market premium scheme, the market premium was intended to prepare renewables for the market and to eventually lower their dependence on explicit policy measures. The rising shares of variable renewable generation had led to concerns about the ability of the electricity system to cope. The new act included measures for the grid integration of photovoltaic systems. Grid operators could now limit the feed-in of photovoltaics in times of grid overload, with the plant operators receiving compensation for their loss of revenue.

A new ordinance required the retrofitting of photovoltaic systems to avoid the The system services bonus for onshore wind was extended and the repowering bonus was improved. Offshore wind gained through improved early starter provisions. The biomass tariff system itself was greatly simplified, with now four size categories and two fuel categories. The tariffs for geothermal energy were raised and the start of the degression postponed until , albeit at an increased rate. Electricity storage facilities were fully exempted from grid charges and are to be supported by a special research program.

Industry privileges under the special equalisation scheme were extended to include more companies and the tariff reductions further improved. As a result, the number of exempt firms rose from in to about in The exempted electricity load rose from Industrial self-consumption, previously exempted from the EEG surcharge, was now subject to the surcharge if the public grid was used, except in special circumstances.

This measure was aimed at preventing abuse through contracting. The introduction of an optional market premium was designed to support demand-oriented electricity generation.

The market premium is the difference between the EEG tariff and the average spot market price. An additional management premium reimbursed administration costs and mitigated against market risks. An additional flexibility premium was introduced for gas storage at biogas facilities. The details of the market premium were to be provided in a following governmental directive, following parliamentary approval.

The green power privilege was also modified. The renewables targets remained unchanged and are identical to those specified in the Energy Concept. In , after numerous complaints, the European Commission opened an in-depth state aid investigation into the EEG surcharge exemptions for energy-intensive companies and into the green power privilege. Despite the cutbacks in photovoltaic support, photovoltaic installations continued to boom. For the first time, cost control became the "determining factor" in the political debate over the EEG.

This was despite the fact that the merit order effect had been depressing electricity spot prices. The merit order effect occurs when preferentially dispatched wind and photovoltaic generation displaces more expensive fossil fuel generation from the margin — often gas-fired combined cycle plant — thereby driving down the cleared price. This effect is more pronounced for photovoltaics because their midday peak correlates with the maximum generation requirement on the system.

The merit order effect also lowers the revenues for conventional power plants and makes them less economically viable. A study finds that "in the case of the year , the volume of the merit order effect exceeds the volume of the net support payments for renewable electricity generation which have to be paid by consumers".

If new additions exceed this corridor, the degression rises by 1. The self-consumption privilege was removed for new installations, as grid parity was already met: The residual electricity could either be self-consumed or sold on the electricity market.

The act is available in English. In turn they receive a market premium from the grid operator to compensate for the difference between the fixed EEG payment and the average spot price for electricity. The purpose of this Act is to enable the energy supply to develop in a sustainable manner in particular in the interest of mitigating climate change and protecting the environment, to reduce the costs to the economy not least by including long-term external effects, to conserve fossil energy resources and to promote the further development of technologies to generate electricity from renewable energy sources.

The EEG also contains statutory targets for the share of renewable energy in gross final electricity consumption the targets are additional to those set out in the government's Energy Concept statement [16]:.

The level of remuneration is still prescribed under the EEG until However the way that new installations receive their remuneration has changed. Most plant operators must now directly market their output, for which they get an additional market premium payment instead of an explicit feed-in tariff. This premium is the difference between the average monthly wholesale price at the EEX energy exchange and the fixed remuneration stated in the EEG.

From — onwards, defined remuneration rates will be replaced by competitive bidding, also known as auctions or tenders. Those investors offering the lowest prices will then receive support. The flexible cap mechanism for expansion corridors was replaced with set annual targets for the addition of wind, photovoltaic, and biogas capacity.

The government hopes these new corridors will lead to a better coordination between renewables and the use and expansion of the transmission network , as well as improving planning security for conventional generators. The target corridor for photovoltaics is set at 2. Photovoltaic installations beyond this upper bound will not receive funding under the EEG. The remuneration for photovolatic installations is reduced 0. Onshore wind retained its annual target of 2.

However the target now excludes repowering, effectively extending the growth cap. The management premium and the bonus paid to wind farms providing stabilizing features Systemdienstleistungen are now being phased out. From onwards, the onshore wind tariff is reduced quarterly, depending on whether new capacity tracks the prescribed target. For offshore wind, the new act defines a target of 6. Offshore wind farms that entered service before can choose between a fixed payment for 8 years or a reduced payment for 12 years.

After this period, the basic reward is reduced still further, depending on the distance from shore and the depth of the sea. The biomass target is set at 0. Only biogas plants that use biowaste and liquid manure will receive more than the standard remuneration, depending on their capacity.

Tariffs are to be reduced by 0. The BMWi also stated that the competition was high and that prices fell from round to round. It added that small bidders were able to win tenders. These results will be used to develop auctions for other renewable electricity generation technologies.

These figures confirm a falling trend from auction to auction. The following explains some of the process prior to the final legislation. The reform is being driven by three guiding principles, namely the need: The government believes that the new auction system will control costs.

The new system also accords with the desire of the European Commission for renewables support to be market-based. To this end, a suite of complex calculations Referenzertragsmodell are being developed to ensure that bids are comparable and payments are fair. It replaces prescribed feed-in tariffs with an auction system for the majority of renewable technologies. It repeats the deployment corridors specified in the EEG to control the uptake of renewable electricity over the next decade and to ensure that future renewable energy targets are honored.

This corridor will be maintained by auctioning only a defined capacity each year. Each technology — photovoltaics, onshore wind, offshore wind, and biomass — will get an auction design tailored to its needs. As indicated above, the auction system was piloted in for ground-mounted photovoltaic facilities.

As a result of this trial, the Economics and Energy Ministry BMWi abandoned ' uniform pricing ' in favor of ' pay-as-bid '. Starting in , there will be between three and four auctions per year for photovoltaics and onshore wind.

Participants will submit single sealed bids and will have to provide a substantial security deposit to ensure good faith. Bids are tied to projects and locations and cannot normally be transferred. The lowest bids will win until the capacity under auction is met. A ceiling price is to be notified in advance.

Special rules apply for citizen energy projects: Onshore wind investors will also have to get prior approval for their projects under the Federal Immission Control Act Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes or BlmSchG , the federal law regulating the harmful effects of air pollution, noise, vibration and similar phenomena.

Citizens cooperatives Genossenschaft participating in wind energy tenders have special dispensations. Wind energy auctions will be held more often in the beginning, with three in and four in , in order to quickly establish a price level. The annual capacity for onshore wind farms will be set at 2.

Boilers powered by biogenic fuels emit more particulate matter than oil and gas boilers. In order to safely undercut the stricter limit values in all operating states, which have been in place since the beginning of , researchers and plant manufacturers are working together to achieve the emission-reduced operation of biomass heating systems by means of secondary emission reduction measures.

The ecclesiastical funding body wanted to use ecological building materials for the construction of a new primary school and, with the energy-optimised building, ensure a high degree of learning comfort with manageable operating costs. This resulted in the first Passive House school building to be constructed using a timber frame structure in Saxony- Anhalt. Multi-year monitoring and accompanying sociological research have verified both its energy efficiency and acceptance.

Energy transition needs water electrolysis on the gigawatt scale. The generation of hydrogen by means of water electrolysis makes it possible to store renewably generated electricity.

In a new study, experts assume that by Germany will require an installed plant capacity in the three-digit gigawatt range in order to achieve the German government's climate protection goals. All articles on Renewable energy sources High-temperature latent heat storage system.

The system is intended to ensure permanent steam supply to an adjacent plant for the production of plastic sheeting. To date, operation of an additional heating boiler has been required under continual minimal load.





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