Sustained, Low‐Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies
Int J Clin Pract Suppl ; To address this concern, the time spent foraging i. Go for Skills and Capacity. Obesity is associated with altered metabolic and reproductive activity in the mare:
The use of the feeder also can be adapted to suit individual requirements, such as increasing the amount of time spent accessing a forage ration with smaller, more frequent meals.
To address this concern, the time spent foraging i. The decrease in body fat and improvement in BCS observed in our study support the concept that exercise can be used to decrease obesity in horses. Previous studies on the impact of exercise on obesity have yielded conflicting results. A different study found that exercise of low then high intensity for 8 weeks decreased BW and fat mass.
Despite using different methodologies for assessing insulin dynamics, a previous study also found no improvements in SI, 18 which may indicate that exercise is not a good approach to improving SI in horses, as it is in other species. In humans, it is not the intensity of the exercise that is most important for improving SI, but the overall amount of exercise undertaken, 33 which is consistent with the improved SI in ponies that were more willing to exercise consistently until the feeder was empty.
Exercise may improve skeletal muscle insulin signaling in horses, at least in the immediate postexercise period. However, longer term improvements in SI have been identified after physical activity 36 , 37 and potentially, different types or longer periods of exercise or both may be required to substantially improve markers of insulin and glucose metabolism in horses in the longer term.
In addition, CGIT data showed some inherent variability in our study, which is likely a function of small sample size, but also may be due to the labile nature of insulin and previous reports that the glucose parameters of the CGIT lack repeatability in horses.
The persistence of any beneficial effects of feeder use was not assessed in our study. The ponies returned to prestudy BW within 6 weeks of ceasing feeder use after a return to pasture access and continued hay supplementation.
This outcome suggests that maintaining weight loss induced by the feeding system would require its continuous use. Conversely, the effect of continuous feeder use on BW and fat mass is unknown, and studies to determine whether longer term use of the dynamic feeder can induce additional benefit, or alternatively lead to adaptation and a plateau in BW, are required.
Previous studies have demonstrated that dietary restriction is effective at decreasing body mass and improving insulin parameters. In humans, a reduction in energy intake was superior to 12 weeks of aerobic exercise for improving SI. The feeding pattern of horses in the wild is based on natural roaming behavior.
Alterations in the feeding and housing of domestic horses may contribute to behavioral, digestive, and metabolic diseases. However, it appears that exercise alone may not be sufficient to achieve substantial metabolic reform in animals with increased adiposity and that a combination of dietary restriction and exercise may constitute the optimal approach to weight loss. The funding bodies had no role in the conception or execution of the study.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Vet Intern Med. Published online Sep Hampson , 2 M. Sillence , 1 and C. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Results The dynamic feeding system induced a 3. Equine metabolic syndrome, Horse, Insulin, Obesity. Open in a separate window. Morphometric Measurements Body weight was determined with a large animal weighing scale Ruddweigh 4.
Hormone Analysis Fasting triglyceride concentration was determined by enzymatic determination AU 5 in serum samples collected at immediately before and immediately after each phase.
Body Fat Determination The percentage body fat was determined by a deuterium oxide D 2 O dilution method according to a protocol adapted for horses. Results Use of the Dynamic Feeder All ponies remained healthy and free from lameness for the duration of the study and no change to pony pairs was required.
Conflict of Interest Declaration: Authors declare no conflict of interest. Prevalence of overconditioning in mature horses in southwest Virginia during the summer. J Vet Intern Med ; Prevalence of obesity in riding horses in Scotland. Vet Record ; Equine Vet J ; Left on the verge: The approaching equine crisis in England and Wales.
Pasture management to minimize the risk of equine laminitis. Obesity is associated with altered metabolic and reproductive activity in the mare: Effects of metformin on insulin sensitivity and reproductive cyclicity. Reprod Fertil Dev ; Nutritional ecology of obesity: From humans to companion animals. Br J Nutr ; Suppl: J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 3: Investigation of the enteroinsular axis during insulin dysregulation. Am J Physiol — Endocrinol Metabol ; Serum insulin concentrations in horses with equine Cushing's syndrome: Response to a cortisol inhibitor and prognostic value.
Equine Vet J Becvarova I, Pleasant RS. Continuing Educat Vet ; J Nutr ; Effect of dietary restriction on body condition, composition and welfare of overweight and obese pony mares. J Equine Vet Sci Am J Vet Res ; Effects of prior exercise on components of insulin signalling in equine skeletal muscle. Equine Vet J Suppl ; S Vet J ; Obesity prevalence and associated risk factors in outdoor living domestic horses and ponies. Peer J ; 2: Comparison of weight loss, with or without dietary restriction and exercise, in Standardbreds, Andalusians and mixed breed ponies.
J Equine Vet Sci Elsevier ; Adaption of horses to a novel dynamic feeding system: Movement and behavioural responses. Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies. A further consideration for the nutritional management of obese Equidae.
Assessment of body fat in the pony: Validation of the deuterium oxide dilution technique for the measurement of body fat. Evidence for a common, saturable, triglyceride removal mechanism for chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins in man. Explore an array of investment opportunities in various districts and sectors via this interactive map of Botswana. Simple as 1 point , 2 click , 3 invest. The purpose of our nation brand is to bring Batswana together around a single identity and agreed set of values, in order to stimulate stronger communities, culture and heritage and most importantly instil a greater sense of pride and community engagement in our country.
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