What is the difference between a lager and an ale?

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Also, a strong smoky and salty character gives the impression of meat. Tasty, if a bit simplistic. Balancing bitterness, but the impression is more sweet than bitter. Clean bready malt immediately joined by biscuits and a pleasant spicy hops flavor. Moderate malt sweetness with nice pils malt flavor.

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Fairly clean lager character throughout with a touch of malt sweetness up front that transitions into a some pithy bitterness. A subtle lingering citrus character competes with a slight hops bite. A subtle lingering citrus character competes with a slight hops bite.

For the average beer drinker, the difference between an ale and a lager comes down to how the beer looks, smells, and tastes. Ales tend to be fruity-estery, while lagers are clean-tasting and frequently described as "crisp. Simply put, lagers use an entirely different type of yeast during fermentation.

All of the knock-on effects -- from different flavors and aromas to decreased fermentation temperatures -- arise from this difference. You'll hear some beer pedants describe the difference as "top-fermenting" ale vs. Lagers are relatively new to the brewing scene. All of those beers you think of as "national" brands -- Heineken, Tsing Tao, Sapporo, Kingfisher, Budweiser to name just a few -- those are all lagers. Lager yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus , was first isolated and described in by the Danish mycologist Emil Christian Hansen while working at the Carlsberg brewery in Denmark.

He discovered another lager strain in , which he named Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. These two have since been determined to be the same yeast, now called by the oldest name given, S. I only mention this because you'll run across people talking about S. A quick graphical reference for the differences between ale and lager. The main difference for the brewer is the brewing temperature: Here's the thing about the lager yeast genome.

It possesses many similarities to that of ale yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae -- it in fact has whole stretches that are identical to S. But lager yeast behaves in a profoundly different manner than ale yeast. The most obvious difference is that lager yeast works best in cold temperatures -- temperatures that would make an ale yeast go dormant.

Further, unlike ale yeast, no "wild-type" lager yeast has ever been found in Europe and lager yeast need humans to continue its propagation. Finally, ale yeast usually spends its life as a diploid organism.

Lager yeast is what biologists call "allotetraploid": So, where the hell did lager yeast S. And why did it only show up in the s, thousands of years after humans figured out how to brew with S. The answer came in , with the publication of "Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast" by Libkind et al in Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences. In it, the researchers analyzed 6 yeast genomes: The scientists knew through prior research that Saccharomyces species thrive on oak trees in Europe.

After collecting samples from forests all over the world, they isolated two cold-tolerant yeast strains from the forests of Patagonia in Argentina. After analyzing the genomes of these cold-tolerant strains, the researchers discovered that they were members of an entirely new species of Saccharomyces yeast, which they named Saccharomyces eubayanus.

The "eubayanus" part is interesting, because what the scientists also determined in this study is that the contaminant strain S. It is a domesticated hybrid strain of this Patagonian yeast.

The flavor of these lighter lagers is usually mild, and the producers often recommend that the beers be served refrigerated. Pale lager is a very pale to golden -colored lager with a well attenuated body and noble hop bitterness. The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid 19th century when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques [12] back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany and applied it to existing lagering brewing methods. This approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll who produced in Bohemia now part of the Czech Republic the first Pilsner beer— Pilsner Urquell.

The resulting pale colored, lean and stable beers were very successful and gradually spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today. Distinctly amber colored Vienna lager was developed by brewer Anton Dreher in Vienna in German speaking brewers who emigrated to Mexico in the late 19th century, during the Second Mexican Empire , took the style with them.

Traditional Vienna lager is a reddish-brown or copper-colored beer with medium body and slight malt sweetness, while Mexican Vienna lager, developed by Santiago Graf [14] has a somewhat darker color and roasted flavor. The malt aroma and flavor may have a toasted character.

In Norway , the style has retained some of its former popularity, and is still brewed by most major breweries. Lagers would likely have been mainly dark until the s; pale lagers were not common until the later part of the 19th century when technological advances made them easier to produce. With alcohol concentrations of 4. Dunkels were the original style of the Bavarian villages and countryside. In brewer Diageo which is part made up of the Irish brewer Guinness released their own Guinness Black Lager brand.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lager disambiguation. Brewing , , CRC. Retrieved September 3, The German Beer Institute. Archived from the original on Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. English translation reprinted Beerbooks. Citing Moniteur de la Brasserie , 23 April Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in German. Event occurs at 41 49 minutes. Oxford University Press, Inc. Retrieved from " https: CS1 German-language sources de All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from November Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.

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