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Metal ores are more usual than other raw materials. Iron ore is rare, but in some countries there is a considerable amount of copper, zinc, tin , chromite , manganese , magnesite and bauxite.

Some metals are exported. The Balkan region was the first area in Europe to experience the arrival of farming cultures in the Neolithic era. The Balkans have been inhabited since the Paleolithic and are the route by which farming from the Middle East spread to Europe during the Neolithic 7th millennium BC.

The Balkans are also the location of the first advanced civilizations. The identity of the Balkans is dominated by its geographical position; historically the area was known as a crossroads of cultures.

It has been a juncture between the Latin and Greek bodies of the Roman Empire , the destination of a massive influx of pagan Bulgars and Slavs , an area where Orthodox and Catholic Christianity met, [58] as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity. In pre-classical and classical antiquity , this region was home to Greeks , Illyrians , Paeonians , Thracians , Dacians , and other ancient groups.

The Achaemenid Persian Empire incorporated parts of the Balkans comprising Macedonia , Thrace , Bulgaria , and the Black Sea coastal region of Romania between the late 6th and the first half of the 5th-century BC into its territories.

By the end of the 16th-century, the Ottoman Empire had become the controlling force in the region after expanding from Anatolia through Thrace to the Balkans. Many people in the Balkans place their greatest folk heroes in the era of either the onslaught or the retreat of the Ottoman Empire. In the past several centuries, because of the frequent Ottoman wars in Europe fought in and around the Balkans and the comparative Ottoman isolation from the mainstream of economic advance reflecting the shift of Europe's commercial and political centre of gravity towards the Atlantic , the Balkans has been the least developed part of Europe.

This estimate is based on Ottoman documentary evidence. Most of the Balkan nation-states emerged during the 19th and early 20th centuries as they gained independence from the Ottoman Empire or the Austro-Hungarian empire: As a result of the war, almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire were captured and partitioned among the allies.

Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albanian state. Bulgaria insisted on its status quo territorial integrity, divided and shared by the Great Powers next to the Russo-Turkish War —78 in other boundaries and on the pre-war Bulgarian-Serbian agreement. Bulgaria was provoked by the backstage deals between its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on the allocation of the spoils at the end of the First Balkan War. At the time, Bulgaria was fighting at the main Thracian Front.

Bulgaria marks the beginning of Second Balkan War when it attacked them. The Serbs and the Greeks repulsed single attacks, but when the Greek army invaded Bulgaria together with an unprovoked Romanian intervention in the back, Bulgaria collapsed. The Ottoman Empire used the opportunity to recapture Eastern Thrace , establishing its new western borders that still stand today as part of modern Turkey. That caused a war between the two countries which—through the existing chains of alliances —led to the First World War.

The Ottoman Empire soon joined the Central Powers becoming one of the three empires participating in that alliance. The next year Bulgaria joined the Central Powers attacking Serbia, which was successfully fighting Austro-Hungary to the north for a year. That led to Serbia's defeat and the intervention of the Entente in the Balkans which sent an expeditionary force to establish a new front , the third one of that war, which soon also became static.

The participation of Greece in the war three years later, in , on the part of the Entente finally altered the balance between the opponents leading to the collapse of the common German-Bulgarian front there, which caused the exit of Bulgaria from the war, and in turn the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, ending the First World War. With the start of the Second World War , all Balkan countries, with the exception of Greece, were allies of Nazi Germany , having bilateral military agreements or being part of the Axis Pact.

Fascist Italy expanded the war in the Balkans by using its protectorate Albania to invade Greece. After repelling the attack, the Greeks counterattacked, invading Italy-held Albania and causing Nazi Germany's intervention in the Balkans to help its ally. Although the new government reaffirmed Serbia's intentions to fulfill its obligations as a member of the Axis, [70] Germany, with Bulgaria, invaded both Greece and Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia immediately disintegrated when those loyal to the Serbian King and the Croatian units mutinied.

The two countries were partitioned between the three Axis allies, Bulgaria, Germany and Italy, and the Independent State of Croatia , a puppet state of Italy and Germany. During the occupation the population suffered considerable hardship due to repression and starvation, to which the population reacted by creating a mass resistance movement. Finally, at the end of , the Soviets entered Romania and Bulgaria forcing the Germans out of the Balkans. They left behind a region largely ruined as a result of wartime exploitation.

During the Cold War , most of the countries on the Balkans were governed by communist governments. Greece became the first battleground of the emerging Cold War.

The Truman Doctrine was the US response to the civil war , which raged from to This civil war, unleashed by the Communist Party of Greece , backed by communist volunteers from neighboring countries Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia , led to massive American assistance for the non-communist Greek government. With this backing, Greece managed to defeat the partisans and, ultimately, remained the only non-communist country in the region.

However, despite being under communist governments, Yugoslavia and Albania fell out with the Soviet Union. Yugoslavia, led by Marshal Josip Broz Tito — , first propped up then rejected the idea of merging with Bulgaria and instead sought closer relations with the West, later even spearheaded, together with India and Egypt the Non-Aligned Movement.

Albania on the other hand gravitated toward Communist China , later adopting an isolationist position. As the only non-communist countries, Greece and Turkey were and still are part of NATO composing the southeastern wing of the alliance. In the s, the transition of the regions' ex-Soviet bloc countries towards democratic free-market societies went peacefully with the exception of Yugoslavia.

Wars between the former Yugoslav republics broke out after Slovenia and Croatia held free elections and their people voted for independence on their respective countries' referenda. Serbia in turn declared the dissolution of the union as unconstitutional and the Yugoslavian army unsuccessfully tried to maintain status quo. In the ensuing 10 years armed confrontation, gradually all the other Republics declared independence, with Bosnia being the most affected by the fighting.

From the dissolution of Yugoslavia six republics achieved international recognition as sovereign republics, but these are traditionally included in Balkans: In , while under UN administration, Kosovo declared independence according to the official Serbian policy, Kosovo is still an internal autonomous region.

In July , the International Court of Justice , ruled that the declaration of independence was legal. With the dissolution of Yugoslavia an issue emerged over the name under which the former federated republic of Macedonia would internationally be recognized, between the new country and Greece. Being the Macedonian part of Yugoslavia see Vardar Macedonia , the federated Republic under the Yugoslav identity had the name Republic of Macedonia on which it declared its sovereignty in Greece, having a large region see Macedonia also under the same name opposed to the usage of this name as an indication of a nationality.

The issue is currently under negotiations after a UN initiation. Greece has been the member of the European Union since while Slovenia is a member since , Bulgaria and Romania are members since , and Croatia is a member since In , the European Union decided to start accession negotiations with candidate countries; Turkey , and Macedonia were accepted as candidates for EU membership.

In , Montenegro started accession negotiations with the EU. In , Albania is an official candidate for accession to the EU. In , Serbia is expected to start accession negotiations with the EU. Montenegro joined in June Currently all of the states are republics, but until World War II all countries were monarchies.

Most of the republics are parliamentary , excluding Romania and Bosnia which are semi-presidential. The states from the former Eastern Bloc that formerly had planned economy system and Turkey mark gradual economic growth each year, only the economy of Greece drops for and meanwhile it was expected to grow in See also the Black Sea regional organizations.

The region is inhabited by Albanians , Aromanians , Bulgarians , Bosniaks , Croats , Gorani , Greeks , Macedonians , Montenegrins , Serbs , Slovenes , Romanians , Turks , and other ethnic groups which present minorities in certain countries like the Romani and Ashkali.

A variety of different traditions of each faith are practiced, with each of the Eastern Orthodox countries having its own national church. A part of the population in the Balkans defines itself as irreligious. The Jewish communities of the Balkans were some of the oldest in Europe and date back to ancient times. The Sephardi Jewish cemetery in Sarajevo has tombstones of a unique shape and inscribed in ancient Ladino. Almost all of the few survivors have emigrated to the then newly founded state of Israel and elsewhere.

Almost no Balkan country today has a significant Jewish minority. The Balkan region today is a very diverse ethno-linguistic region, being home to multiple Slavic and Romance languages , as well as Albanian , Greek , Turkish , and others. Romani is spoken by a large portion of the Romanis living throughout the Balkan countries.

Throughout history many other ethnic groups with their own languages lived in the area, among them Thracians , Illyrians , Romans , Celts and various Germanic tribes. All of the aforementioned languages from the present and from the past belong to the wider Indo-European language family, with the exception of the Turkic languages e.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with Baltic states. Political communities that are usually included in the Balkans. History of the Balkans. Languages of the Balkans. Gray, Geoffrey Sloan Geopolitics, Geography and Strategy. Retrieved 10 November Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. The Boundaries of the Region and the Limits of the Discipline". Entangled Histories of the Balkans - Volume Four: Concepts, Approaches, and Self- Representations.

Balkan Sprachbund Morpho-Syntactic Features. Encarta World English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 25 August Oxford University Press, Inc. Hemus — a Thracian name. Retrieved 20 June The Library of Apollodorus". Retrieved 12 September Oxford University Press US. Brill Online Reference Works. World Land Features Database. Archived from the original on 28 February Retrieved 31 December Junior Visiting Fellows' Conferences.

Retrieved 5 January A history of Eastern Europe. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 8 June Balkans Into Southeastern Europe, — A Century of War and Transition. London , United Kingdom: National and University Library in Zagreb.

Ziel war es, massenweise neue Anbauflächen für die Gewinnung von Palmöl zu schaffen. Doch auch das aufwändigste Greenwashing kommt ungleich billiger als eine Veränderung der Produktionsbedingungen. Vom österreichischen Supermarkt nach Indonesien, in die USA und nach Deutschland reisen Boote und Hartmann, um Orte zu besuchen, die von der schrecklichen Zerstörungsgewalt hinter dem Greenwashing zeugen, um mit Menschen zu sprechen, die sich nicht weiter belügen lassen wollen — und auch mit denen, die nach wie vor behaupten, nie gelogen zu haben.

Boote und Hartmann stehen inmitten des brandgerodeten Regenwaldes und erleben die ehemalige grüne Lunge der Welt als apokalyptischen Albtraum. Sie besuchen in Texas den Uni-Professor und Mitbegründer der Antiglobalisierungsbewegung Raj Patel, der sich berechtigterweise darüber empört, dass die Wahl zwischen fair und unfair produziert immer noch auf den Konsumenten abgewälzt wird: Warum wird das nicht vom Gesetz vorgegeben, warum ist das eine individuelle Entscheidung?

Es stehen ein paar Windräder herum, um den Anschein von erneuerbarer Energie zu erzeugen — aber hauptsächlich wird Braunkohle gefördert, aus der Strom, u. In Brasilien wiederum erzählt Sonia Guajajara, das Oberhaupt der indigenen Bevölkerung, wie ihre Landsleute mit brutaler Gewalt von ihrem ureigenen Grund und Boden vertrieben oder sogar ermordet werden, um Platz für Soja-, Mais-, Zuckerrohrplantagen und Rinderfarmen zu schaffen.

Die Macht über alle wichtigen Entscheidungen liegt bei denen, die das Kapital kontrollieren. Sind wir alle wirklich Konsum-Superhelden, die es in der Hand haben, die Welt zu retten, wenn wir uns dafür entscheiden, die richtigen Produkte zu kaufen? Wie schon in seinen bisherigen Erfolgsdokus nähert sich Werner Boote der Kernfrage seines neuen Filmes nicht mit analytischer Trockenheit, sondern mit ganz bewusst inszenierter, emotionaler Subjektivität — hier mit der oft kritischen Neugier eines ganz normalen Konsumenten.

Kathrin Hartmann führt ihn dabei mit überzeugendem Charme und schier unendlichem Expertenwissen zu den Tricks und Lügen der Industrie.





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