Internationale Handelsfinanzierung : Strategien Fur Auslandsinvestitionen Und Handel

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Petersburg, and whose hands are in every cabinet of Europe, have taught the working classes the duty to master themselves the mysteries of international politics; to watch the diplomatic acts of their respective governments; to counteract them, if necessary, by all means in their power; when unable to prevent, to combine in simultaneous denunciations, and to vindicate the simple laws or morals and justice, which ought to govern the relations of private individuals, as the rules paramount of the intercourse of nations. First International International Workingmen's Association. Cancel Forgot your password?

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Internationale Handelsfinanzierung by Herbert Kessler, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.

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Leopold was elected by acclamation as the international committee's first chairman, but said that he would serve for one year only so that the chairmanship could rotate among people from different countries. The new body was welcomed throughout Europe contributions were sent by the Rothschilds and Viscount Ferdinand de Lesseps and the national committees were to be headed by grand dukes, princes, and other royals, but most of them never got off the ground.

Nevertheless, thanks to the Association, Leopold succeeded in his goal of convincing the Belgian people and the major powers of Europe that his interest in Africa was purely altruistic and humanitarian-oriented. The Association was succeeded by the short-lived Committee for Studies of the Upper Congo, and the International Association of the Congo , which eventually dissolved when Leopold named his colony the Congo Free State. The organization was created at the Brussels Geographic Conference to which Leopold invited nearly forty well-known experts, who were mainly schooled in the geographic sciences or were wealthy philanthropists.

They hailed from a number of European countries. As a result, the Association was originally conceived as a multi-person, scientific, and humanitarian assembly but it quickly became dominated by Leopold and his economic interests in Africa. Originally, the stated goal of the group was to "discover" the largely unexplored Congo and 'civilize' its natives. The Association was intended to be a joint effort on the parts of all European countries present at the Conference, however, each nation formed its own national committee for exploration which would, in theory, share information with the whole of the Association, hence, a cooperative effort.

However, national economic interests quickly took precedence over the group's supposedly philanthropic ideals.

Each of these committees organized nationalized expeditions into the African interior and there was very little sharing of information, resulting in each nation claiming certain portions of African land for themselves. From to famed explorer Henry Morton Stanley returned to the Congo, this time not as a reporter, but as an envoy from Leopold, and under the guise of the Belgian Committee, with the secret mission to organize a Congo state.

At the same time, the French marine officer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza traveled into the western Congo basin and raised the French flag over the newly founded Brazzaville in The Kingdom of Portugal , which also claimed the area due to old treaties with the native Kongo Empire , made a treaty with Great Britain on February 26, , to block off the Congo Society's access to the Atlantic.

At the same time, various European countries tried to acquire a foothold in Africa. In , Great Britain occupied the Khedivate of Egypt , an Ottoman vassal which ruled over much of present-day Sudan and parts of Somalia.

In and , Kingdom of Italy took possession of the first parts of Eritrea , while the German Empire declared Togoland , German Cameroon , and South-West Africa to be under its protection in The large number of competing interests caused the Association to fracture and disintegrate over each member state's national interests. The Association's break-up eventually forced the Berlin Conference of —, effectively ending what became known as the Scramble for Africa.

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