Abstand and ausbau languages
From this point, the variety could be further developed for use in technical, scientific or government domains. A commonly cited example occurs in the Scandinavian dialect continuum spanning Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Das Serbokroatische zwischen Linguistik und Politik:
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Siliguri houses the following locomotives:. Bhagat Ki Kothi homes. There are many more sheds that home these locos and are going to home these. The use of the locomotives "long hood forward" has been criticised because the driver might have difficulty in seeing signals.
This criticism has been rejected by Indian Railways. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. WDP-4 in Long hood Forward mode. Railways in India portal. Broad gauge locomotives of India. Class 57 Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class early versions Class later versions Class Class Retrieved from " https: Articles needing additional references from October All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Commons category link is locally defined.
Views Read Edit View history. Trudgill expands the definition to include related varieties: Kloss described an ausbau language as providing a "roof" German: Dach over dependent varieties, whereas non-standard varieties without a reference standard were "roofless dialects". In , "Rumantsch Grischun" was developed by Heinrich Schmid as such a Dachsprache for a number of quite different Romansh language forms spoken in parts of Switzerland. Perhaps the most widely used Dachsprache is Modern Standard Arabic , which links together the speakers of many different, often mutually unintelligible varieties of Arabic.
Kloss recognized three degrees of separation between ausbau languages. When two standards are based on identical or near-identical dialects, he considered them as variants of the same standard, constituting a pluricentric language. Standards created from different dialects, but with little abstand , would not be considered separate abstand languages, but constitute distinct ausbau languages, as noted above for Danish , Swedish and Norwegian.
In such cases, the question of where the one language ends and the other starts is often a question more of ausbau than of abstand. In some instances, ausbau languages have been created out of dialects for purposes of nation-building.
Other examples of groups of vernaculars lacking abstand internally but that have given rise to multiple ausbau languages are: Persian of Iran and Afghanistan cf. Dari ; Bulgarian and Macedonian , because they have different dialect bases. Finally, the ausbau languages may be so different that they also constitute abstand languages. There are several instances of languages and language pairs that have undergone role changes over time.
Low German , for instance, was both an ausbau language and a roof of local dialects in the Netherlands and Germany and in parts of the Baltic states and their formerly German vicinity. With the end of the Hanseatic League , Low German lost its status as an official language to a large degree. Approximately at the same time, Dutch started to replace Low German as a roof of the Low German dialects in the Netherlands that form today's Dutch Low Saxon group, and most Central German dialects went under the "roof" of the evolving High German.
Today, its dialects surviving in northern Germany have come under the roof of Standard German. In several spots along the Dutch—German border, identical dialects are spoken on both sides, but are deemed to belong to different roofing according to which side of the border they are on.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Linguistics Outline History Index. In Clyne, Michael G. Differing Norms in Different Nations. Contributions to the sociology of language Das Serbokroatische zwischen Linguistik und Politik: Lincom Studies in Slavic Linguistics 34 in German.
Sprachpolitik und Sprachnationalismus in der Republik Indien und dem sozialistischen Jugoslawien [ Language and Policy: Deutsche Beiträge zum Internationalen Slavistenkongress, Ohrid, Welt der Slaven in German.
Zeitschrift für Balkanologie in German. Archived from the original on 4 August
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